Just more than 20 days to buy for family and friends, better to start without the panic !
CHRISTMAS, at the medieval market place, WELLS, Wednesdays, Saturdays, surrounded by Wells Cathedral 1175, The Bishop's Palace 1210, The Moat of the Swans, 14 acres, partnered with RHS, of tranquil gardens, Vicars Close 1363, the oldest continuously occupied medieval street UK, Flagstone Drawbridge, Portcullis, The Well Pools, Vaulted Undercroft, Long Gallery, Arboretum, England's smallest City. The run-up to Christmas ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA for that original cultural gift used by The Pharaohs for two thousand years before The Silk Route opened 2nd Century BC, still today.
Note : The Near East, Hellenistic art, a fusion of Greek and Near East artistry an imaginative one hour talk & presentation. THE UNTOLD STORY OF SOAP : an ancient product, 40 centuries later, directly from the Soapmakers on The Silk Route, The Persian Royal Road, continuing making history. Awakening the activity, THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST, more untold then we thought.
The atmosphere of Antioch, third largest City of The Roman Empire.The only Roman City illuminated at night for more than 800 years.
The presence and importance of The Silk Route 2nd Century BC where oil in soaps travelled from Mardin (near the Persian border), Aleppo City and just a short distance from The Imperial Palace, Antioch to be traded in Antioch Market, later in the 10th century AD Nablus soap from Palestine continued history at Antioch Market the finest first pressed olive oil from olive groves of 5000 years, still today.
PALMYRA, the home of Queen Zenobia, an oasis in the Syrian dessert. The important link on The Silk Route, Unesco World Heritage Site, now continuing to stay on the 'The List of World Heritage in Danger'.
The Ancient World’s impressive culture and inventions : Sumerians, Babylonians, WHERE TIME BEGAN, where children of the world need to know.
2,200 BC SUMERIAN text : their knowledge was that Soap had medical benefits.
2,200 BC SUMERIAN PRIESTS : used Oil in Soap for medical benefits.
Sumerians : implementing Clay, building cities, writing in cuneiform on clay tablets.
GALEN OF PERGAMUM : 129-210 AD, Philosopher, Greek Physician, Surgeon, Personal Physician of The Emperors was cognisant Soap had medical benefits because of ancient civilisation knowledge. 2,200 BC SUMERIAN PRIESTS : used Oil in Soap for medical benefits.
SUMERIANS : The formula for the area of a Triangle and Cube.
SUMERIANS : The first astronomers to map the stars into different constellations. They identified five planets that were visible to the naked eye.They documented a rudimentary cluster of constellations and noted the movements of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury. Their month began with the sunset and the first crescent of the new moon. This was seen for 18 hours after the 36 hours when the old crescent disappeared. The crescent was the thinnest of all its forms. The day consisted of 12 hours and it started and ended with sunset.They were also the first to create a lunar calendar. Phases of the moon were used to count the 12 months of the year. Assigning symbols to large numbers was also necessary as they wanted to track the course of the night sky in order to prepare the lunar calendar. They started using a small clay cone to denote the number 1, a ball for 10, and a large clay cone for 60. An elementary abacus was invented between 2700 and 2300 BC. Sumerian week : 7 days. Babylonians : year 12 months, 24hours, 60 minutes, 60 seconds, Lunar calendar following phases of the Moon, a complete Lunar cycle 29.5 days.
6th Century BC, late Babylonian. Cartography, Latin word Charta, Greek word Graphein : tablet, draw, creating the first circular MAP 'Bitter River' written on a clay tablet The British Museum.
Babylonians : 1750 BC Arithmetic, the concept of place value in numbers.
Pheonicia : 1500 BC first steps towards a phonetic alphabet.
Mesopotamia : 1800 BC light chariot, drawn by two horses.
INCREDIBLE ASSYRIANS building Dams, Canals, Aqueducts and bronze water screws (four centuries before Archimedes, 500 years before The Romans built aqueducts). Cleverness : bronze water raising screw sent water 50 miles from the mountains into the heavenly gardens of Nineveh. Mardin Oil in Soap used by the Royal Gardeners ( planting The Hanging Garden of Nineveh ) of Sennacherib, Ashurbanipal (grandfather, grandson), on The Silk Route, The Persian Royal Road at Nineveh.
Assyrian relief, first known depiction of handshaking 9th century BC.
PERSIANS : Darius 1 allows The Soapmakers to travel on The Persian Royal Road, The Parthians from Persia (247BC-224AD) allowed silk to travel through their Empire trading ostrich eggs for silk. Later, Persian Sogdian Traders, 2nd Century BC, travelled on The Silk Route for more than 800 years.
SILK : 2696 BC Lei Zu, daughter of Xi Ling, Empress, Wife of The Yellow Emperor, the implementer of silk; by chance a silkworm cocoon fell from a tree into her tea cup unwrapping the silk and strong but, soft thread. Ancient Greek word for China 'Seres' 'The Land of Silk'. Han Dynasty, four immense innovations : Gunpowder, Paper, Printing, Compass. Paper arriving first in Samarkand as late as 700 AD destined for Europe. 138 BC, Emperor Wu Di instructs Zhang Qian, diplomat, envoy, to open up The Silk Route to the West to trade outside of China for the first time and later, silk for gold with The Roman Empire. Chang'an, Capital of China-Antioch, 3rd largest City of The Roman Empire on the Mediterranean waters, 4,025 miles. By 102 BC China controlled traffic and taxes at Tun-Huang Oasis later, called Dunhuang Oasis. Traders from the West were compelled to wait until Chinese soldiers checked for silkworms or, cocoons. The Roman Empire's Pliny the Elder 'At least a hundred million sesterces flow out of the empire every year to India, China and Arabia, that is how much luxury and women cost us'. Yellow silk : a class distinction. 552 AD : Emperor Justinian Ist sends two emissaries (Nestorian monks) to China to smuggle silkworm eggs, hidden in rods of bamboo, tired of paying exorbitant silk prices. Later, sericulture (silk farming) began.
By the 1st century BC silk reached Rome, initiating the first ’Silk Route’. Pliny, writing about silk, thought it was made from the down of trees. The Roman Emperor Augustus (ruled 27 BC-14 AD) was the first from Europe to arrive in China confirmed by Roman Historian, Poet Florus. 166 AD, rumour reported at the time an emissary from Andun (China) on behalf of Emperor Marcus Aurelius brought gifts of ivory, tortoiseshell, rhinoceros horn to the Chinese. Romans are believed by some to have made it as far east as the Gobi Desert. The people in Liqian, a village in Gansu Province in western China on the fringes of the Gobi Desert, near the Qilian mountains, say they are descendants of Romans and say the curly hair, straight noses, and light-coloured eyes that some of them have proved it.The Romans that made it to China are said to have been soldiers under Crassus a Roman leader who formed the First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey who survived a battle against the Parthians in Syria and Persia and then made their way east, working as mercenaries for the Huns, until they were captured by Chinese troops during a Chinese attack on the Hun ruler Zhizhi, Uzbekistan.
THE HAN DYNASTY wanted a formidable cavalry horse and found a special breed of horse large and of great stamina located in the Ferghâna Valley, north of the Hindu Kush, the valley being continuous across eastern Uzbekistan, south of Kyrgyzstan, northern Tajikistan. Ferghâna was especially noted for its horses, and attracted the attention of the Chinese who wanted to improve the breed they used for their cavalry. An envoy was sent to purchase the desired animals, but was not only turned down, he was killed. General Li Guangli was then sent in 104 BC with an army of 60,000 over the Pamirs to seek revenge and to bring back the Ferghâna horses, known to the Chinese as 'blood-sweating’ or, ‘heavenly' horses. Li besieged the city of Tashkent but, failed to take it and returned with the remnant of his army. Reaching the frontier of China, he asked for permission to proceed on to the capital. This was denied and reinforcements were sent, he was told not to come back without the horses. This gave him added determination, and the second expedition was successful, returning in 101 BC with 1000 horses.
THE ISHTAR GATE, one of The Seven Wonders of The Ancient World, Unesco World Heritage Site, Hanging Garden of Nineveh, one of The Seven Wonders of The Ancient World, celebrated Theatres, Libraries of THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST.
The BIBLICAL presence of THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST, ANTIOCH (where Christianity began). Bible : Jeremiah 2.22, Malachi 3.2 Soap.
Centuries Later, Still Preserved Today, 10 year project, over 27 feet below ground level, 4 acres of Antioch ( City of Antioch 1,100 acres, where the Soapmakers made history) excavating, authenticity preserved, still today. 30,000 objects dating back to the 3rd Century BC : The Necmi Asfuroğlu Archaeology Museum, Hatay Archaeology Museum overlooking Mt. Silpius.
SOAP : the greatest medical discovery in human history, cleans away something you cannot see, soap does not attract germs, water does. UNICEF : doctors wash their hands half as frequently as they should, if every cook used soap it would cut the world’s rate of respiratory infections by 25%. Saves the life of a healthy person oblivious to the bullet they dodged, has saved more lives than penicillin, doesn't just make cities healthier it makes them possible, enabling our existence.
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA : continuing the ethical and sustainable ethos, the culture and spirit of the first Soapmakers of the world remarkably, still handmade today from the original historical areas whilst supporting their families.
THE UNTOLD STORY OF SOAP
AN ANCIENT PRODUCT,40 CENTURIES LATER, DIRECTLY FROM THE SOAPMAKERS ON THE SILK ROUTE,THE PERSIAN ROYAL ROAD, CONTINUING MAKING HISTORY, THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST.
THE SILK ROUTE, 2ND CENTURY BC, CHANG’AN CAPITAL OF CHINA, HAN DYNASTY - ANTIOCH ON THE MEDITERRANEAN WATERS, 4025 MILES, SELEUCID EMPIRE 323 BC - 64 BC, 3RD LARGEST CITY OF
THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
ANTIOCH THE SOPHISTICATED CITY, 1400 ROMAN COLUMNS AND PORTICOES LINED THE COLONNADED STREET FOR TWO AND A HALF MILES, SHOPKEEPERS TRADING BELOW EACH COLUMN WOULD USE THEIR VEGETABLE OIL FILLED LAMPS EACH NIGHT UNTIL 3 A.M. TO LIGHT UP THE COLONNADED STREET FOR MORE THAN 800 YEARS, ANTIOCH MARKET, ANTIOCH THE THIRD LARGEST CITY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE ON THE MEDITERRANEAN WATERS WHERE OIL IN SOAPS ; ONLY PURCHASED BY THE WEALTHY, PHARAOHS, KINGS AND QUEENS FOR TWO THOUSAND YOURS BEFORE THE FIRST SILK ROUTE OPENED.
2200 BC SUMERIANS PROCURE OIL IN SOAPS WRITTEN IN CUNEIFORM ON CLAY TABLETS, TWO THOUSAND YEARS BEFORE THE SILK ROUTE OPENED, USED BY KINGS, QUEENS, PHARAOHS AND THE WEALTHY.
THE FIRST HANDMADE OLIVE OIL, PISTACHIO OIL, LAUREL BERRY OIL AND ALMOND OIL SOAPS TRADED ON THE SILK ROUTE AT A TIME WHEN JESUS WAS BORN, ROMAN EMPERORS, KINGS, QUEENS, PRINCESSES, PHARAOHS OF EGYPT REIGNED.
THE SILK ROUTE 138 BC CHANG’AN - ANTIOCH ON THE MEDITERRANEAN WATERS, 4025 MILES, HAN DYNASTY’S EMPEROR WU-DI SENDS EXPLORER ZHANG QIAN, AS DIPLOMAT, ENVOY, TO THE WEST OPENING THE SILK ROUTE. ANTIOCH : SELEUCID EMPIRE 323 - 64 BC THE ROMAN EMPIRE :
41 BC ‘ALEPPO' FAVOURED BY QUEEN CLEOPATRA.
1580 AD ‘NABLUS' THE PREFERENCE OF ELIZABETH 1.
3RD CENTURY AD ‘ANTIOCHIA' THE PREFERENCE OF QUEEN ZENOBIA.
‘PISTACHIO’,’PISTACHIO' WITH KERNEL OF THE APRICOT FAVOURED BY ASSYRIAN QUEENS AND PRINCESSES FOR HUNDREDS 0F YEARS FOR THEIR HAIR.
'ALMOND', THE PREFERENCE OF THE ROMANS AND GREEKS.
Where Soap Began : Sumerian Soap : 2200 BC Oil in Soap
Babylonian Soap : Babylonians continued making history
Oil in Soap from Ancient Mesopotamia
Oil in Soap perfected by The Sumerians
SUMERIANS ( 5,400 BC - 1750 BC 3,650 YEARS )
BABYLONIANS : The rise to power of The Babylonians in Mesopotamia around 1900 BC, known as 'Old Babylonian Period’. 1792-1750 BC sixth King Hammurabi of The Amorites, First Dynasty of Babylon Later, Neo-Babylonian period 626 BC - 539 BC.
Near East, Fertile Crescent continuing history at : Antioch, Antiochia Soap, Aleppo (now Gaziantep on The Silk Route, same weather pattern as Aleppo), Aleppo Soap, Mardin, Mardin Soap & Nablus, Nablus Soap. 40 Centuries of Soapmakers, still today.
THE HISTORY OF SOAP
THE HISTORY OF OIL IN SOAP
THE UNTOLD STORY OF THE NEAR EAST
THE UNTOLD STORY OF SOAP
The Ancient Near East, more untold than we thought.
Silk from The East, by chance a silkworm cocoon fell from a tree into Lei Zu's tea cup unwrapping the silk and strong but, soft thread.
Sumerians, Where Time Began.
Sumerians, the formula of the circumference of the triangle, Egypt builds their Pyramids. Egyptians clearly had great respect for Sumerians their cleverness was truly respected.
Sumerians : Planting date orchards 3,000 BC, planting date palm trees 100 feet tall, 200 years, to give shade whilst quenching their thirst with Barley Beer sweetened with date syrup.
Antioch, loved by Roman Emperors where they forgot their troubles.
Pliny the Elder, Herodotus and more, telling ambiguous truths either because of their ignorance or, laziness. Pliny the Elder was in Antioch where he mentions the fact that laurel berries were being loaded onto donkeys daily for the constant journey to Aleppo but, he never completed the question 'why'. Oil in Soap was an incredible expensive luxury and historians have never paid any attention to it and clearly only referred to the oil and strigil, the mystery of why oil in soaps never went to Rome has been The continuing Untold Story of Oil in Soap for 40 centuries, still today. Sumerians gave us TIME, Sumerians gave us Oil in Soap.
Galen of Pergamum knew Sumerians knew through texts 2200 BC that Oil in Soaps had medical benefits.
Unbelievable, that historians wrote the classical account of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon with the area of Babylon 2605 acres being completely flat, completely unable to service enough water to the so called raised gardens of Babylon.
The incredible journey from Antioch to Daphne known for its plethora of thickly planted mulberry bushes, groves of cypresses and laurels forming a dramatic continuous roof, the carpet of rose groves interspersed with streams five miles from Antioch leading down to the Mediterranean waters.
Caravans of camels loaded with jewels, spices from Cappadocia, Persia, India, Arabia.
The importance of Palestine, forgotten today, established since 1276 BC.
Amazing Romans endurance and stability. Astonishing life style of the wealthy at Antioch.
And of course, history could have been re-written if Alexander the Great of Macedon, had survived his 32 years after conquering Macedon-India. He died 323 BC while suffering a high fever that lasted 10 days, Babylon.
The theories of Alexander the Great : buried first in Memphis, Egypt the old capital, moved to Alexandria. Roman Emperor, Caesar Augustus (Octavian), paid his respects after the conquest of Egypt 30 BC.
Other theories : Venice, St. Mark's Cathedral. Siwa Oasis, Egypt. Archaeologists, continuing nebulous deliriium, still today.
Aigai, Northern Greece, The Royal dynasty of The Temenids, the family of Philip 11, son Alexander the Great, where the unlooted tomb of Philip 11 rests, Unesco World Heritage Site.
The Silk Route, Chang'an 2nd Century BC, capital of China, Han Dynasty observing thirty three listed names : capital cities, palaces, Khan Kingdoms, trading settlements, Buddist cave Temples, ancient paths, beacon towers, parts of The Great Wall, fortifications, religious buildings, Where The Silk Route Began, Chang'an - Tian-Shan Corridor a Unesco World Heritage Site.
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Ancient Mesopotamia Gifts
644 Charlton Horethorne
Maps & Sketches : Rowen Salt, Katheryn Lockey