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The Eight Wonders, Women, of The Ancient World :
                                      ________
Kubaba, only Queen of The Sumerians.

Empress Xi Lingshi, implementer of Silk for 3000 years, by chance.

Queen Pu-abi Ur, 111 period.

Poet, Priestess, Enheduanna.

Queen Cleopatra.

Queen Zenobia, 3rd Century CE.

Theodora, Empress, 497 AD - 28th June 548 CE.

Pharaoh Hatshepsut.

And of course, Priestesses ruled City States as ‘Ensi’ designated ruler of city states, Sumer.
                                           
Kubaba :
SUMERIANS, four main classes : Priests, Upper Class which, included The Royals, Lower Class and Slaves. Unchanged words of The Sumerians, still today, crocus (flower), Saffron (colour and spice). Sumerians were paid for their work, women had the freedom to work and able to set-up their own business. Being a Brewer created considerable wealth, autonomy, influence.  One Brewer Kubaba became ruler of Kish, 2500 BCE, the only woman recorded to have such power, the first and only Queen among The Sumerian rulers. However, women mentioned the most in ancient texts were priestesses they frequently ruled city-states as 'Ensí' (designated ruler of a city-state), their power exceeded all but, a few of men (the secular leader was called Lugal meaning 'The Strongman'). However, the first recorded Physicians 2700 BCE were Women. The Royal Court had Women Physicians 2500 BCE, 'Peseht' know as Lady Overseer of Female Physicians. Also referenced were Female Dentists, Doctors in Ancient Mesopotamian texts. Priestesses served as the first Dentists, Doctors, they had to be celibate.
 
Xi Lingshi :
SILK : 2640 BCE Empress, Xi Lingshi, Wife of The  Emperor Huang-di (ancient writings of the Chinese Historical Classic, The Tribute of Yu, mulberry growing, silk farming, quoted by Confucius), (Confucius, 551 BCE-479 BCE), Xi Lingshi, 14 years old, the implementer of silk; by chance, a silkworm cocoon fell from a mulberry tree into her tea cup unwrapping the silk and strong but, soft thread. The Yellow Emperor wore white Silk at the Imperial Palace during the day and Yellow Silk at night, a class distinction. Silk : perhaps 5000 silkworms to make a silk dress, bioderadable, and no other fabric comes close to its softness. Ancient Greek word for Silk People 'Seres' China, The Land of Silk. Unesco World Heritage Site status listed thirty three named places, where The Silk Route Began, Chang'an-The Tian-Shan Corridor.
 
Queen Pu-abi :
A picture of Ancient Sumerian Art and Civilisation : 'The Royal Standard of UR', 'Treasures of The Royal Tombs of UR', 'Ram Caught in a Thicket', a statuette, Lapis Lazuli, Gold and Shell depicting a standing animal nibbling a bush, The intact tomb of a woman called 'Pu-abi', a Queen, wearing a magnificent headdress.
 
A trench adjacent to the ruined Ziggurat revealed burials, gold jewelry, precious stones, 1800 graves, clay coffins, however, 16 coffins were very different, a Queen confirmed by a cuneiform cylinder seal named Pu-abli, surrounded by serving ladies crowding the floor around, two hundred finely crafted objects of Metal, Stone, Wood. UR, perhaps Abraham's birthplace.
 
Ornate headdress and a pair of earrings found with the body of Queen Pu-abi in the Royal Cemetery at Ur. The headdress is made up of 20 gold leaves, two strings of lapis and carnelian, and a large gold comb. She wore chokers, necklaces, and large lunate-shaped earrings. Her upper body was covered by strands of beads made of precious metals and semi-precious stones that stretched from her shoulders to her belt. Ten rings decorated her fingers. A diadem or fillet made up of thousands of small lapis lazuli beads with gold pendants depicting plants and animals on a table near her head.
 
Poet, Priestess, Enheduanna :
The First Author known by name in History : The Great Poet-Priestess Enheduanna meaning Ornament of Heaven who appeared to have worked as a Priestess for 40 years, who signed her name to a set of 3 Poems she wrote about her gods & goddesses and composer of 42 Temple Hymns. She is noted at The Penn Museum : Calcite Disc, 2300 BCE with a view of her profile. The woman know for her headdresses where she would  dine with men, as her equal. Her Father was Sargon of Akkad, 2350-2150 BCE, Mesopotamia.
 

Queen Cleopatra :

Cleopatra was Queen, 18 years old, spoke nine languages, studied politics, economics, mathematics. 21 years, she was in The Sinai Desert raising an army, plotting her return to the throne. Her brilliant manoeuvers won strategic alliances with Caesar and Antony, changing the course of history. The Ptolemaic period began in 305 BCE, one of Alexander the Great's generals became Ptolemy 1 Soter of Egypt and later of course, Cleopatra (fluent in Egyptian) 30 BCE, ends 275 years of Greek rule of Egypt.
 
Queen Zenobia :
Mosaics, columns and walls of ancient Antioch, the third largest City of The Roman Empire after Rome and Alexandria, favoured by The Emperors, third century CE, The Imperial Palace residence of Queen Zenobia (Antiochia, the preference of Queen Zenobia, just a short walk from the Soapmakers), Queen of Palmyra Empire, Queen of Syria, Queen of Egypt, ruler of one third of The Roman Empire (6 years, loved by her people), declaring ancestry with Cleopatra, educated in Greek, Latin, Egyptian (fluent) and Aramaic, defeated by Emperor Aurelius, chained in gold chains, treated with humility but, paraded in Rome for a life in Tivoli, where she re-married and died 34 years old, 4 children.

Theodora :
EMPEROR JUSTINIAN 1st 527-565 CE rebuilds and strengthens the last Roman Fortress, Wife Theodora, exceptionally beautiful, intelligent, Empress, ruled with Justinian 1st for 21 years, a woman from a poor background. Theodora had grown up among the working classes of Constantinople (330 CE the new Capital of The Roman Empire, lasting 12 centuries) previously, Ancient Greek City of Byzantium, four times the size of Byzantium, built on seven hills, just like old Rome), she was a child of the circus who became Constantinople's best known actress. Theodora loved the male, female baths and frequented them often, early in the morning and leaving late. The mixed baths (where olive oil and alkali (ash) was used) ended in the 8th century CE. Procopius, Writer, Greek Scholar, Principal Byzantium Historian of the 6th century CE portrayed Theodora as a wanton of the most promiscuous sort, sighting a stage act that the future Empress was said to have performed involving her naked body, some grain and a gaggle of trained geese. Justinian 1st passed a law allowing intermarriage between social classes, his marriage to Theodora caused a scandal but, she became one of the most influential women of the Ancient World. First : campaigner of women's rights, she worked for the rights of prostitutes, closing brothels, safe houses, forced prostitution, changed the law on divorce, abolished a law that allowed women to be killed for committing adultery.

Queen Hatshepsut :

A thousand years after The Pyramids, Queen Hatshepsut (Hat-shep-soot) became Pharaoh, considered the most successful of all Pharaohs, reigned 21 years. Hatshepsut, famous for building The Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri, Thebes, incredible architecture and She commissioned the tallest Obelisk at Karnak, Egypt, 323 tons, red granite stone, 97 feet tall. She died 1458 BCE, in her mid-forties.

 

                               THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

Every area of human knowledge was advanced within The Fertile Crescent : Science, Writing, Literature, Religion, Agriculture, Mathematics, Astronomy, Astrology, long distance Trade, Medical practices, domestication of Animals, Concept of Time. Without doubt, Irrigation was the panacea.

East Anatolian Fault : Museum Hotel (Antioch), one of the few buildings standing 30,000 objects,largest Roman Empire floor mosaic and all other objects safe, 27 feet underground, Hotel above safe, 6th February 2023,7.8 Mw.

East Anatolian Fault : Aleppo, completely destroyed 6th February 2023, 7.8 Mw. However, The Aleppo Soapmakers continue making history.

East Anatolian Fault : Mardin, tremors, aftershocks, but, the 4,500 BCE City safe, 40 centuries of soapmaking still continues, still today, 6th February 2023 7.8 Mw.

East Anatolian Fault : December 13th, 115 CE 260,000 lives lost, Antioch.  Emperor Trajan had just returned to the City and escaped to the Hippodrome, Circus. He built a new aqueduct under 4 miles to replenish water for the City which, was completed by Hadrian.

East Anatolian Fault : 29th March, 526 CE 250,000 lives lost followed by 18 months of aftershocks. Emperor Justinian 1st, Empress Theodora : The earthquake of earthquakes Antioch, Theodora ensured the fine Church of St. Michael and The Basilica of Asterius were rebuilt despatching marble columns from Constantinople.

East Anatolian Fault : 11th October 1138 CE, Aleppo earthquake, 200,000 lost their lives.

The Silk Route 138 BCE Chang'an - Antioch on the Mediterranean waters, 4025 miles, Han Dynasty's Emperor Wu Di sends explorer Zhang Qian, as diplomat, envoy, to the West opening The Silk Route. Han Dynasty, observing thirty three listed names : capital cities, palaces, Khan Kingdoms, trading settlements, Buddist cave Temples, ancient paths, beacon towers, parts of The Great Wall, fortifications, religious buildings, Where The Silk Route Began, Chang'an - Tian-Shan Corridor a Unesco World Heritage Site. Antioch : Seleucid Empire 323 - 64 BCE The Roman Empire.

Map of Alexander the Great

Susa - Sardes : 1,677 miles, 111 stations (caravanserai) on the heavily guarded Persian Royal Road.

Where Time Began : The Story of Silk, implemented by chance, The First Moisturiser of The Ancient World, Queen Zenobia, Cleopatra, Elizabeth 1, Assyrian Queens, Pharaohs, Papyrus, called tjufy by The Pharaohs where The Romans 500 BCE first rolled Papyrus into little cylinders called Candalae, The Story of The Libraries, Scrolls, Parchment, Theatres, Dams, Canals, Aqueducts and Bronze Water Raising Screw, sent water 50 miles from the mountains into the heavenly gardens of Nineveh, date palm tree is an early reference to the Archimedes Screw, as the trunk of a date palm often grows with spirally protrusions similar in shape to an Archimedes Screw, Assyrians, four centuries before Archimedes, Sennacherib (grandfather) : First Hydraulic Engineer of The Ancient World, 500 years before The Romans built Aqueducts, Ashurbanipal (grandson), The Hanging Garden of Nineveh, not Babylon, Antioch, where the word Christianity began, implemented by Peter, Paul. First : Sumerians, oil in soap. First : Antiseptics, Antibacterial, Anti-itching, Anti-inflammatory. First : Sumerian Priests Used these Soaps for medical benefits, Clay Tablets, Where Children and Family need to know.

PERSIANS : Darius 1 allows The Soapmakers to travel on The Persian Royal Road, The Parthians from Persia (247BCE-224CE) allowed silk to travel through their Empire trading ostrich eggs for silk, building caravanserai along The Silk Route ensuring daily riches which, was repeated by The Kushans making The Silk Route safe to travel. Later, Persian Sogdian Traders, 2nd Century BCE, travelled on The Silk Route for more than 800 years.

The Near East, Hellenistic Art, A Fusion of Greek, Near East Artistry, THE UNTOLD  STORY OF SOAP : an ancient product, 40 centuries later, directly from the Soapmakers on The Silk Route, The Persian Royal Road, continuing making history. Awakening the activity, THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST, more untold than we thought.

The atmosphere of Antioch, third largest City of The Roman Empire.The only Roman City illuminated at night for more than 800 years.

The presence and importance  of The Silk Route 2nd Century BCE where oil in soaps travelled from Mardin (near the Persian border), Aleppo City and just a short distance from The Imperial Palace, Antioch to be traded in Antioch Market, later in the 10th century CE Nablus soap from Palestine continued history at Antioch Market the finest first pressed olive oil from olive groves of 5000 years, still today.

PALMYRA, the home of Queen Zenobia, an oasis in the Syrian dessert. The important link on The Silk Route, Unesco World Heritage Site, now continuing to stay on the 'The List of World Heritage in Danger'.

SUMERIANS : Ma'dan (Marsh Arabs).

The Ancient World’s impressive culture and inventions : Sumerians, Babylonians, WHERE TIME BEGAN, where children of the world need to know. Sumerians : The concept of Time.

2,200 BCE SUMERIAN text : their knowledge was that Soap had medical benefits.

2,200 BCE SUMERIAN PRIESTS : used Oil in Soap for medical benefits.

Sumerians : implementing Clay, building cities, writing in cuneiform on clay tablets influencing The Egyptians Heiroglyphics.

GALEN OF PERGAMUM : 129-210 CE, Philosopher, Greek Physician, Surgeon, Personal Physician of The Emperors was cognisant Soap had medical benefits because of ancient civilisation knowledge. 2,200 BCE SUMERIAN PRIESTS : used Oil in Soap for medical benefits.

SUMERIANS : The formula for the area of a Triangle and Cube.

SUMERIANS : The first astronomers to map the stars into different constellations. They identified five planets that were visible to the naked eye.They documented a rudimentary cluster of constellations and noted the movements of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury. Their month began with the sunset and the first crescent of the new moon. This was seen for 18 hours after the 36 hours when the old crescent disappeared. The crescent was the thinnest of all its forms. The day consisted of 12 hours and it started and ended with sunset.They were also the first to create a lunar calendar. Phases of the moon were used to count the 12 months of the year. Assigning symbols to large numbers was also necessary as they wanted to track the course of the night sky in order to prepare the lunar calendar. They started using a small clay cone to denote the number 1, a ball for 10, and a large clay cone for 60. An elementary abacus was invented between 2700 and 2300 BCE. Sumerian week : 7 days. Babylonians : year 12 months, 24hours, 60 minutes, 60 seconds, Lunar calendar following phases of the Moon, a complete Lunar cycle 29.5 days.

6th Century BCE, the first circular MAP Babylonian called 'Bitter River' written on a clay tablet The British Museum.

Babylonians : 1750 BCE Arithmetic, the concept of place value in numbers.

Pheonicia : The Alphabet was invented in the early second millennium BCE which, spread across the Mediterranean world in the first millennium BCE.

Mesopotamia : 1800 BCE light chariot, drawn by two horses.

Unbelievable, that historians wrote the classical account of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon with the area of Babylon 2605 acres being completely flat, completely unable to service enough water to the so called raised gardens of Babylon.

Ancient Greek & Roman Writers who were associated with the classical account of 'The Hanging Garden of Babylon' : Berossus (Babylonian Priest of Marduk, writer), Josephus, Siculus, Rufus, Strabo, Philo of Byzantium, Cleitarchus (History of Alexander, thirty fragments of work). 8,200 Gallons of Water per day would have been required to service the writers classical accounts. Apparently, non of The Writers visited Babylon.

INCREDIBLE ASSYRIANS building Dams, Canals, Aqueducts and  bronze water screws (four centuries before Archimedes, 500 years before The Romans built aqueducts). Cleverness : bronze water raising screw sent water 50 miles from the mountains into the heavenly gardens of Nineveh. Mardin Oil in Soap used by the Royal Gardeners ( planting The Hanging Garden of Nineveh ) of Sennacherib, Ashurbanipal (grandfather, grandson), on The Silk Route, The Persian Royal Road at Nineveh. In order to draw water up all day long, Sennacherib had rope, bronze wires, chains made and set up the great cylinders and date palm trees over cisterns. Designing an automatic Sluice that opened by itself. Some of the water was diverted to irrigate orchards, fields to the north of Nineveh, an artificial marshland to delay the flow, filtered water which attracted wildlife. ASSYRIANS : Masters of the principles of hydraulic engineering. Water Raising Screw : a great tree trunk 'gismahhu', the word for cylinder 'alamittu' moulds, date palm tree, Water Screw cast in bronze.

Sennacherib : First Hydraulic Engineer of The Ancient World who made Water Climb !

Assyrian relief : First known depiction of handshaking 9th century BCE.

SILK : 2640 BCE Empress, Xi Lingshi, 14 years old, Wife of The  Emperor Huang-di, the implementer of silk; by chance, a silkworm cocoon fell from a tree into her tea cup unwrapping the silk and strong but, soft thread. Ancient Greek word for Silk People 'Seres' China,The Land of Silk. Han Dynasty, five immense innovations : Porcelain, Eastern Han Dynasty, Gunpowder, Paper, Printing, Compass. Paper arriving first in Samarkand as late as 700 CE destined for Europe. 138 BCE, Emperor Wu Di instructs Zhang Qian, diplomat, envoy, to open up The Silk Route to the West to trade outside of China for the first time and later, silk for gold with The Roman Empire. Chang'an, (perpetual peace), Capital of China-Antioch, 3rd largest City of The Roman Empire on the Mediterranean waters, 4,025 miles. By 102 BCE China controlled traffic and taxes at  Tun-Huang Oasis later, called Dunhuang Oasis. Traders from the West were compelled to wait until Chinese soldiers checked for silkworms or, cocoons. The Roman Empire's Pliny the Elder 'At least a hundred million sesterces flow out of the empire every year to India, China and Arabia, that is how much luxury and women cost us'. Yellow silk : a class distinction. 550 CE : Emperor Justinian Ist sends two emissaries (Nestorian monks) to China to smuggle silkworm eggs, hidden in their walking staffs, tired of paying exorbitant silk prices. Later, sericulture (silk farming) began.

However, Silk has been traced back to Neolithic, China, fragments found 3630 BCE. Articles of Silk have been excavated from Hubei Tomb, Marquis Yi of Zeng, 433 BCE, 234 fragments found. Discovery of a Child's Silk Shroud, carbon dated 5000 years ago, sericulture at a local level !

'HAN', the name of The Chinese People. Han Chinese dominant ethnic group, China, still today.

By the 1st century BCE silk reached Rome, initiating the first ’Silk Route’. Pliny, writing about silk, thought it was made from the down of trees. The Roman Emperor Augustus (ruled 27 BCE-14 CE) was the first from Europe to arrive in China confirmed by Roman Historian, Poet Florus. 166 CE, rumour reported at the time an emissary from Andun (China) on behalf of Emperor Marcus Aurelius brought gifts of ivory, tortoiseshell, rhinoceros horn to the Chinese. Romans are believed by some to have made it as far east as the Gobi Desert. The people in Liqian, a village in Gansu Province in western China on the fringes of the Gobi Desert, near the Qilian mountains, say they are descendants of Romans and say the curly hair, straight noses, and light-coloured eyes that some of them have proved it.The Romans that made it to China are said to have been soldiers under Crassus a Roman leader who formed the First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey who survived a battle against the Parthians in Syria and Persia and then made their way east, working as mercenaries for the Huns, until they were captured by Chinese troops during a Chinese attack on the Hun ruler Zhizhi, Uzbekistan.

THE ISHTAR GATE, one of The Seven Wonders of The Ancient World, Unesco World Heritage Site, Hanging Garden of Nineveh, Historians : Perhaps Nineveh one of The Seven Wonders of The Ancient World, celebrated Theatres, Libraries of THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST.

The BIBLICAL presence of THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST, ANTIOCH (where Christianity began). Bible : Jeremiah 2.22, Malachi 3.2 Soap.

Centuries Later, Still Preserved Today, 10 year project, over 27 feet below ground level, 4 acres of Antioch ( City of Antioch 1,100 acres, where the Soapmakers made history) excavating, authenticity preserved, still today. 30,000 objects dating back to the 3rd Century BCE : The Necmi Asfuroğlu Archaeology Museum, Hatay Archaeology Museum overlooking Mt. Silpius.

SOAP : the greatest medical discovery in human history, cleans away something you cannot see, soap does not attract germs, water does. UNICEF :  doctors wash their hands half as frequently as they should, if every cook used soap it would cut the world’s rate of respiratory infections by 25%. Saves the life of a healthy person oblivious to the bullet they dodged, has saved more lives than penicillin, doesn't just make cities healthier it makes them possible, enabling our existence.

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA : continuing the ethical and sustainable ethos, the culture and spirit of the first Soapmakers of the world remarkably, still handmade today from the original historical areas whilst supporting their families.


                                          ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

                                       THE UNTOLD STORY OF SOAP

AN ANCIENT PRODUCT,40 CENTURIES LATER, DIRECTLY FROM THE SOAPMAKERS ON THE SILK ROUTE,THE PERSIAN ROYAL ROAD, CONTINUING MAKING HISTORY, THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST.

THE SILK ROUTE, 2ND CENTURY BC, CHANG’AN CAPITAL OF CHINA, HAN DYNASTY - ANTIOCH ON THE MEDITERRANEAN WATERS, 4025 MILES, SELEUCID EMPIRE 323 BCE - 64 BCE, 3RD LARGEST CITY OF
THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

ANTIOCH, THE SOPHISTICATED CITY, 1400 ROMAN COLUMNS AND PORTICOES LINED THE COLONNADED STREET FOR TWO AND A HALF MILES, SHOPKEEPERS TRADING BELOW EACH COLUMN WOULD USE THEIR VEGETABLE OIL FILLED LAMPS EACH NIGHT UNTIL 3 A.M. TO LIGHT UP THE COLONNADED STREET FOR MORE THAN 800 YEARS, ANTIOCH MARKET, ANTIOCH, WHERE THE VOICES OF PEOPLE WAS HEARD IN LATIN & GREEK. THE THIRD LARGEST CITY OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE ON THE MEDITERRANEAN WATERS WHERE OIL IN SOAPS, ONLY PURCHASED BY THE WEALTHY, PHARAOHS, KINGS AND QUEENS FOR TWO THOUSAND YOURS BEFORE THE FIRST SILK ROUTE OPENED.

2200 BCE SUMERIANS PROCURE OIL IN SOAPS WRITTEN IN CUNEIFORM ON CLAY TABLETS, TWO THOUSAND YEARS BEFORE THE SILK ROUTE OPENED, USED BY KINGS, QUEENS, PHARAOHS AND THE WEALTHY.

 
THE FIRST HANDMADE OLIVE OIL, PISTACHIO OIL, LAUREL BERRY OIL AND ALMOND OIL SOAPS TRADED ON THE SILK ROUTE AT A TIME WHEN JESUS WAS BORN, ROMAN EMPERORS, KINGS, QUEENS, PRINCESSES, PHARAOHS OF EGYPT REIGNED.
 
THE SILK ROUTE 138 BCE CHANG’AN - ANTIOCH ON THE MEDITERRANEAN WATERS, 4025 MILES, HAN DYNASTY’S EMPEROR WU-DI SENDS EXPLORER ZHANG QIAN, AS DIPLOMAT, ENVOY, TO THE WEST OPENING THE SILK ROUTE. ANTIOCH : SELEUCID EMPIRE 323 - 64 BCE THE ROMAN EMPIRE :
                                                                     
41 BCE ‘ALEPPO' FAVOURED BY QUEEN CLEOPATRA.
 
1580 CE ‘NABLUS' THE PREFERENCE OF ELIZABETH 1.
 
3RD CENTURY CE ‘ANTIOCHIA' THE PREFERENCE OF QUEEN ZENOBIA.
 
‘PISTACHIO’,’PISTACHIO' WITH KERNEL OF THE APRICOT FAVOURED BY ASSYRIAN QUEENS AND PRINCESSES FOR HUNDREDS 0F YEARS FOR THEIR HAIR.
 
'ALMOND', THE PREFERENCE OF THE ARISTOCRACY, ROMANS, GREEKS, ANTIOCH.
 
Where Soap Began : Sumerian Soap : 2200 BCE Oil in Soap

                                  Babylonian Soap : Babylonians continued making history

                                  Oil in Soap from Ancient Mesopotamia

                                  Oil in Soap perfected by The Sumerians

SUMERIANS ( 5,400 BCE - 1750 BCE 3,650 YEARS, perhaps )

BABYLONIANS : The rise to power of The Babylonians in Mesopotamia around 1900 BCE, known as 'Old Babylonian Period’. 1792-1750 BC sixth King Hammurabi of The Amorites, First Dynasty of Babylon Later, Neo-Babylonian period 626 BCE - 539 BCE.

Near East, Fertile Crescent continuing history at : Antioch, Antiochia Soap, Aleppo (now Gaziantep on The Silk Route, same weather pattern as Aleppo), Aleppo Soap, Mardin, Mardin Soap & Nablus, Nablus Soap. 40 Centuries of Soapmakers, still today. Laurel berry oil, not seen in The West, 4000 years.

 
Unesco World Heritage Sites, Lydia.


The Ancient Near East, more untold than we thought.

Silk from The East, by chance, a silkworm cocoon fell from a tree into Empress, XI Lingshi's tea cup unwrapping the silk and strong but, soft thread.

Antioch : the beginning of Christianity.

Sumerians : the formula of the circumference of the triangle, Egypt builds their Pyramids. Egyptians clearly had great respect for The Sumerians their cleverness was truly respected.

Sumerians : Planting date orchards 3,000 BCE, planting date palm trees 100 feet tall, 200 years, to give shade whilst quenching their thirst with Barley Beer sweetened with date syrup.

Antioch : Loved by Roman Emperors, where they forgot their troubles.

Pliny the Elder, Herodotus and more, telling ambiguous truths either because of their ignorance or, laziness. Pliny the Elder whilst in Antioch observes laurel berries were being loaded onto donkeys daily for the constant journey to Aleppo but, he never completed the question 'why'. Oil in Soap was an incredible expensive luxury and historians have never paid any attention to it and clearly only referred to the oil and strigil, the mystery of why oil in soaps never went to Rome has been The continuing Untold Story of Oil in Soap for 40 centuries, still today. Sumerians : The concept of Time, Sumerians : Oil in Soap.

Galen of Pergamum knew Sumerians knew through texts 2200 BCE that Oil in Soaps had medical benefits.

The incredible journey from Antioch to Daphne known for its plethora of thickly planted mulberry bushes, groves of cypresses and laurels forming a dramatic continuous roof, the carpet of rose groves interspersed with streams five miles from Antioch leading down to the Mediterranean waters.

Caravans of camels loaded with jewels, spices from Cappadocia, Persia, India, Arabia.

The importance of Palestine, forgotten today, established since 1276 BCE.

Amazing Romans endurance and stability. Astonishing life style of the wealthy at Antioch.

Babylon : Etemenanki (House of the Foundation of Heaven on Earth), Ziggurat, also known as, The Temple of Belus, The Tower of Babel, originally built by King Hammurabi, 17 million fired bricks. Under King Nebuchadnezzer 11 the restoration and enlargement of Etemenanki took 43 years to complete. Alexander the Great cleared rubble from the destruction of Etemenanki using 10 thousand labourers before his fever and death at the Summer Palace.



And of course, history could have been re-written if Alexander the Great of Macedon, had survived his 33 years after conquering Macedon-India. He died 323 BCE while suffering a high fever that lasted 10 days, Babylon.

Aigai, Northern Greece, The Royal dynasty of The Temenids, the family of Philip 11, son Alexander the Great, where the unlooted tomb of Philip 11 rests, Unesco World Heritage Site.

The Silk Route, Chang'an 2nd Century BCE, capital of China, Han Dynasty observing thirty three listed names : capital cities, palaces, Khan Kingdoms, trading settlements, Buddist cave Temples, ancient paths, beacon towers, parts of The Great Wall, fortifications, religious buildings, Where The Silk Route Began, Chang'an - Tian-Shan Corridor a Unesco World Heritage Site.    

Your event enquires : small dinner party evenings, medium size dinner parties and larger events. One hour talk and presentation of product for purchase, continuing history, The Near East, still today, stories not told before.

info@ancientmesopotamiagifts.com

ancientmesopotamiagifts.com

THE STORY OF THE NEAR EAST, NOT TAUGHT IN SCHOOLS, CHILDREN NEED TO KNOW WHERE TIME CAME FROM, 60 SECONDS, 60 MINUTES, 24 HOURS, MATHEMATICS, IRRIGATION, 360 DEGREES, AL-JABR, LATINISED, ALGEBRA, GEOMETRY, THE TRIGONOMETRIC TABLE, 40 OTHER THINGS WE TAKE FOR GRANTED EACH DAY ! Telling the story to a new generation ! A purchase for every Parents household, Grandparents, Parents informing  !

Coming soon ! Children's Book, 2024 !

The Children in the Clouds !

5400 BCE, High on the Plateau of Anatolia, where the clouds are at one with the Plateau, four children are in deep shock. A journey with their parents up from The Persian Gulf, up The Euphrates, 1740 miles, crosses true desert, a disaster beyond their imagination, with their parents drowning, floating away, the torrent flow of The Euphrates, where dreams are lost, but, at that moment power was gained, a gift of Clairvoyance ( beyond the senses ) was overcome by The Children using their knowledge to tell the story of The Ancient Near East. WHERE SHALL WE BEGIN  : I’m Erin (abundant land) I'm 15, this is Lilla (oath of god) she is 14, Zara (radiance) 10, Inda (bump) 9 !
                                

BOOK : Short Stories, Maps, Sketches, Photographs. Please click Store and scroll.

The medieval market place, WELLS, Wednesdays, Saturdays, surrounded by Wells Cathedral 1175, The Bishop's Palace 1210, The Moat of the Swans, 14 acres, partnered with RHS, of tranquil gardens, Vicars Close 1363, the  oldest continuously occupied medieval street Europe, Flagstone Drawbridge, Portcullis, Ruined Great Hall, The Well Pools, Vaulted Undercroft, Long Gallery, Arboretum, England's smallest City. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA, for that original cultural gift : beautiful framed MAPS, BOOK : story of SILK, NEAR EAST, ALEXANDER the GREAT, ROMANS, GREEKS and 4000 years of SOAPMAKING, still today, silky, lasts for months, HISTORY in box.

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